Wide-row potato cultivation technology

The use of wide-row technology makes it possible to increase the productivity of agricultural machines up to 20%, reduce the soil density in the tuberization zone by 1.5-1.9 times, increase the marketability of potatoes, and reduce the consumption of seeds when growing for food purposes from 50 to 40-45 thousand pieces. per 1 hectare. The water-air regime created with this technology reduces the infestation of plants by late blight by 10-15%, tubers – by 2-3 times. On light soils, planting is carried out on markers, on medium and heavy soils – in pre-cut ridges.

The ridges are cut with cultivators KRN 4.2, OKG-4, KGO 3.6 or milling cultivators. The working depth should be 12-14 cm, the height of the ridge, depending on the type of soil – 10-15 cm. The cutting of the ridges and all subsequent operations for caring for planting and harvesting potatoes are carried out by tractors with a working track of 1800 mm.

Potatoes are planted with a SK 4 planter or similar imported planters. The seeding depth on loamy soils should not exceed 5-8 cm, on light soils – 10-12 cm. When planting potatoes, it is most advisable to use combined units that cultivate the soil in one pass, plant potatoes and form volumetric ridges.
The planting density of potatoes for food purposes is formed at the rate of 200 thousand stems per 1 hectare for medium-late and late varieties and 250 thousand stems for medium-early and early varieties. When planting potatoes with combined units and forming a ridge with cutters, further inter-row processing is completely excluded. Weeds, diseases and pests are controlled only by chemical means.

The system of care for potato plantings should be differentiated taking into account soil and weather conditions.
To form a volumetric ridge, use the same cultivators as for cutting ridges. A high economic effect on medium and heavy soils is provided by the use of milling cultivators.

The system of fertilizers, protection of plantings from diseases, pests and weeds is similar to the traditional technology of growing potatoes with a row spacing of 70-75 cm.

Harvesting of potatoes is carried out by one- and two-row harvesters of domestic or foreign production.
Separate cleaning deserves special attention. First, the tubers from two rows are laid with a digger in one tape. After 1.5-2 hours, when the tubers are sufficiently ventilated and dry, the potatoes are harvested with a single-row combine with a special attachment, which is a small conveyor with rubber brushes.

With this method of harvesting, the soil contamination of the heap is reduced, the costs of drying the tubers are reduced, the harvesting speed is increased, the breakdowns of the combine are reduced by eliminating the ingress of stones and other foreign bodies into the working bodies of the combine.

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Anna Evans


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