Onion-The best varieties: description, characteristics, photo

Onions are biennial plants and are part of the Liliaceae family. It has been cultivated by mankind for 6 thousand years, so today many of its varieties are known. They are classified both in terms of ripening, and in taste and other characteristics. What kind of varieties, read on.

A selection of varieties by maturity

This criterion is often the key when choosing a variety of onions. According to him, the plant is of three types, each of which will be considered separately.

Early maturing

This group includes varieties, the growing season of which ranges from 65-80 to 100 days. The best among them are:

  • Bessonovsky local. The variety was bred in the Penza region and is excellent for cultivation in the middle lane, including the Moscow region. Bulbs with several nests are small – from 40 to 65 g. They have a rounded and slightly flattened shape, a thin neck and golden dry scales. The flesh is firm, crispy and pungent in taste. From 1 sq. m beds will be able to collect up to 1,1-2,6 kg of small bulbs with a keeping quality of up to 8 months. This variety is great for growing greens. Its disadvantages are susceptibility to disease and decay, as well as whimsicality to preventive spraying during the growing period.
    Bessonovsky local
  • Hercules. Variety with abundant yield – from 1 sq. m beds will be able to collect up to 8 kg of heads. The plant has a well-developed root system, which allows it to endure dry periods. Hercules also shows resistance to disease and decay. Bulbs weighing from 120 to 160 g acquire an elongated oval shape and are covered with a dense golden-yellow skin. They taste spicy, but without bitterness. They leave a spicy aftertaste behind.


  • Timirjazevskij. This variety is excellent for cultivation in cold regions. It bears fruit with round fruits weighing 60 to 70 g, which are covered with yellow or light brown husks and have brownish necks. These dense bulbs are characterized by snow-white flesh with a dense structure and a sharp taste. Productivity – up to 3,8 kg of bulbs per 1 sq. m. In good weather, germination rises to 98-100%, and in wet weather it drops to 70%. The variety has a weak resistance to peronosporosis, but an average resistance to neck rot.
  • Ermak. The variety is often found in the northern regions, as it is resistant to low temperatures and downy mildew. It is best to cultivate it through sevok. The bulbs are formed in a spherical shape, covered with yellow scales and gaining in mass from 100 to 200 g. The pulp is dense and has a piquant semi-sharp taste. Productivity is good – up to 4 kg per 1 sq. m. In the garden, 80-90% of the bulbs ripen, which need ripening for 10-14 days. After that, they can be stored for 8 months or more.
  • Stuttgart Riesen. A well-known early variety from German breeders, unpretentious to weather conditions and suitable for growing through sets in different regions of Russia. Productivity – about 3 kg per 1 sq. m beds. Bulbs of Stuttgarter Riesen are formed with a dense golden husk and white flesh with a piquant pronounced spicy taste. On average, each of them weighs up to 90-130 g, has a flat-round shape and a dense structure. The variety is susceptible to fungal diseases, and in bad years it can become ill with neck rot or downy mildew.
    Stuttgart Riesen
  • Carmen. A representative of the Dutch selection with an average yield – from 1 sq. m beds will be able to collect up to 2,5 kg of fruit. These are round-flat turnips weighing from 50-70 to 120 g, which have a purple husk and white flesh with a reddish tint. They taste semi-sharp with a pronounced fragrant aroma, therefore they are suitable for preparing salads and for heat treatment. Carmen is disease resistant and keeps well.


  • Yukont. The variety can be grown through sets or seeds. In the first case, the growing season will be 62-73 days, and in the second – up to 90 days. The bulbs are flat-round in shape and weigh an average of 100 g. They are covered with bright purple dry scales with a purple-raspberry tint, but the flesh itself is white and spicy in taste. The germination rate of the variety is 93%, and from 1 square. m beds you can collect about 3 kg of fruit. Without tangible loss, they can be stored for up to 8 months.
  • Karatal. This variety will please with a good harvest even in arid climates and soils with low fertility. From 1 sq. m beds on average manage to get up to 4,4 kg of bulbs. They are round in shape and weigh between 50 and 120 g. Their dry scales are yellow or golden yellow, and the flesh is white and with a distinct pungent taste. Karatalsky belongs to multi-germ cultures and, when forcing on a feather, gives an excellent crop of green feathers.
  • globe. If you plant onions in late spring, then at the end of summer from 1 square. m beds, you can collect about 5 kg of rounded, oval or elongated-rounded bulbs weighing from 130-160 to 250 g. They are covered with light brown or brown husks and have juicy flesh with a spicy taste. The globe is best suited for cultivation as an annual crop. It shows resistance to peronosporosis and is subject to long-term storage.


  • Heroic strength. If you want to grow onions mainly for salads, then this is an excellent variety. It forms large, one-dimensional rounded bulbs weighing up to 500 g, which have a mild and sweet taste. The plant is undemanding to the soil, but in most cases it needs to be fed with organic fertilizers. With proper care from 1 square. m will be able to collect up to 6 kg of fruit.
    Heroic strength
  • Rambo. In regions with frequent changes in weather conditions, this particular variety can be grown, as it endures temperature changes and is rarely subject to fungal diseases. The plant forms beautiful bulbs of uniform round shape, which weigh up to 150 g, have a light brown color and juicy white flesh with a mild taste. To get a good harvest of fruits and feathers, when growing Rambo, the soil must be fertilized with mineral fertilizers. Another disadvantage of the variety is the ability to store bulbs for no more than 4 months.
  • Red Semko F1. A hybrid from Dutch breeders, which in regions with a long daylight hours can be grown through seeds, and in cold areas through sets. From 1 sq. m plot, you can collect up to 4-5 kg ​​of rounded bulbs that weigh about 80 g, have a purple husk and white dense flesh with noticeable dark red stripes and a semi-sharp taste. The variety is suitable for long-term storage.
    Red Semko F1
  • Strigunovsky Local. Suitable for cultivation throughout the Russian Non-Black Earth Region. From 1 sq. m beds can be collected about 1,1 to 3,2 kg of bulbs weighing up to 90 g. They have a rounded or flattened shape and are covered with yellowish or pink dense dry scales. The inner scales are white and have a sharp taste. The variety is cold-resistant and shows resistance to silk rot.

    Strigunovsky Local

  • Centurion. Another variety comes from Holland, which can be grown in both cold and warm regions. Centurion forms bulbs weighing up to 100 g, which have an elongated shape, a narrow neck and a small bottom. They are covered with bright straw scales, but the flesh itself is white and slightly pungent in taste. Bulbs are suitable for canning and fresh consumption, and are also subject to long-term storage.
  • Jatoba F1. A hybrid of the Dutch selection, forming rounded bulbs, which reach a diameter of 5-8 cm and are covered with dry bronze-colored scales. Onions can be grown on a feather. A monophonic tops of rich green color with a wax coating turns out to be even, upright and beautiful, therefore it is in demand when selling on the market.
    Yatoba F1

The middle-ripening

These are varieties with a growing season of 90-100 to 120 days. Almost all of them have good transportability and keeping quality, but are more suitable for consumption not fresh, but after heat treatment. Popular mid-season varieties of onions are:

  • Aleko. Can be cultivated through seeds or sets. In the second case, the harvest will be later, but 1,5-2 kg higher. The bulbs are single-celled, round in shape and weigh from 80 to 120 g. They have dry scales of a deep purple color and dense snow-colored flesh with purple stripes, which has a sharp, intense taste. Dry scales fit snugly to the head and are purple in color with a purple tint. The heads ripen in the area up to 94%, therefore they require a short ripening, and then they are perfectly stored.
  • Iceperl F1 (Icepearl F1). Hybrid with a keeping quality of about 7-8 months. During storage, round fruits weighing up to 350-400 g do not rot due to shiny scales with a dense surface. The flesh is white and has a pleasant spicy taste. The plant has a good root system, which ensures almost 100% germination. You can also grow this hybrid on feathers, which are uniform, beautiful and with an attractive color.

    Айсперл F1 (Icepearl F1)

  • Valero F1. Popular hybrid of the Dutch selection for cultivation in different climatic zones. It bears fruit with bulbs with dense scales of dark brown color. They acquire a rounded shape and moderate size – they reach 6-8 cm in diameter. Hydride can be stored for 4 to 6 months. It does not give arrows, and also shows resistance to fusarium and pink rot. The variety is suitable for mechanical harvesting.
    Valero F1
  • Great Full Red F1. Lettuce hybrid comes from Holland with excellent commercial qualities, as well as resistance to fusarium, downy mildew and pink root rot. Yield indicators are stable – about 2,5-3,5 kg per 1 sq. m. The bulbs are rounded, have a dense burgundy-red husk and slightly sharp white flesh. On average, they weigh 130-250 g, but large specimens weighing up to 600 g come across. The variety demonstrates excellent keeping quality and adaptability to different weather conditions.
    Great Full Red F1
  • Danilovsky 301. Variety of domestic selection, allowed for cultivation since 1950. It is recommended to grow in a two-year culture from sevka, so that from 1 sq. m to collect 1,2-3,3 kg of crop. The bulbs are flat or rounded flat, weighing 80-150 g on average. They are covered with dark red scales with a purple tint, and the flesh itself is light lilac, juicy and with a semi-sharp taste close to sweet. With proper storage, the variety is not affected by rot and does not germinate.

    Danilovsky 301

  • Rainbow. A versatile variety that can be grown on average in one season, so there is no need to buy or grow onion sets. Round turnips weigh on average from 100 to 150 g, although specimens weighing up to 250 g come across. They have red dense scales and white flesh. Purple rings are visible on the cut, so the onion is well suited for making salads. It has a pleasant semi-sharp taste, close to sweet. The rainbow shows resistance to diseases and does not tend to grow in nests.
  • Lucy. A Czech cultivar that bears attractive round bulbs with dense yellow-bronze upper scales. Their necks are thin, so they dry quickly and have a long shelf life. The pulp itself is white, moderately juicy and spicy in taste. The heads weigh an average of 130-150 g.
  • Krasnodar G 35. A variety of domestic selection, grown in an annual crop from seeds since 1943. Forms rounded one-dimensional bulbs weighing 90-114 g. They are covered with yellow-brown scales with a slight pink tint. The flesh itself is white and semi-sharp in taste. Productivity – up to 2-4 kg per 1 square. m. Depending on weather conditions, germination is 50-95%. Among the shortcomings, it can be noted that the variety is susceptible to fungal diseases, neck rot and downy mildew.
    Krasnodar G 35
  • Sturon. A variety of Dutch selection that can be grown in regions with a warm or temperate climate. Forms spherical heads that weigh approximately 110-180 g, have tight-fitting rich golden dry scales and white sharp flesh. The yield of the variety is 6 kg per 1 sq. m, and keeping quality – up to 9 months. Sturon shows resistance to disease and decay, and is also rarely affected by pests.


  • Setton. A variety of Dutch selection for professional cultivation, which bears fruit with elongated bulbs weighing about 100-120 g. They have a golden husk, elongated brown necks and cream-colored flesh with a slight sharpness. With proper agricultural technology from 1 square. m beds can be collected up to 5-6 kg of fruit. The plant does not give arrows and has an average susceptibility to fungal diseases.
  • Starter. If you plan to harvest mechanically, then this variety is an excellent choice. It bears fruit with bulbs weighing up to 130-140 g, which reach 6-8 cm in diameter. They have a rounded shape and a dense husk, thanks to which they can be stored for 7-8 months. The feathers of this onion are dark green in color and excellent in taste, so it can be grown to sell fresh herbs. The plant rarely suffers from diseases and does not give arrows.
  • Solstice F1. This mid-season Dutch variety is in great demand in cooking due to its snow-white juicy heart with a savory taste. The bulbs themselves are rounded with dry white scales. They can be stored without loss of product characteristics for 6-7 months. The culture is highly resistant to Fusarium, but medium to pink root rot.
    Solstis F1
  • Odintsovo. It bears fruit with bulbs of a rounded shape, which are suitable for mechanical harvesting, have excellent keeping quality and transportability. Each of them weighs approximately 60-80 g, has a white-cream flesh with a slight sharpness and is covered with dense bronze-amber scales. The crop yield is small – about 1,5 kg per 1 sq. m. Its disadvantage can also be considered susceptibility to neck rot and downy mildew.
  • Elista. This Czech variety differs from its relatives in its unusual oval shape, which makes it easy to cut uniform rings of the same diameter. The bulbs are covered with scales of a beautiful bronze color, weigh approximately 110-120 g and have a juicy snow-white pulp, suitable for preparing fresh salads and main dishes.


Mid-ripening turnips are characterized by high yields, however, they require special care during the cultivation and harvesting period, since an excess of mineral fertilizers or mechanical damage significantly reduces their shelf life.

late ripening

Varieties with a growing season of more than 4 months are late-ripening and are intended for growing regions where there is little sunlight and warm days. Popular among them are:

  • Amphora. A variety with an original teardrop shape, which distinguishes it from round counterparts. Bulb weight averages from 100 to 120 g. Each of them has a pleasant bronze color with a red tint. The flesh itself is white, juicy and crispy. It is best to grow Amphora in an annual crop from seeds, but cultivation through onion sets is possible.
  • Spanish 313. The culture bears fruit with round bulbs, reaching a mass of 150-200 g. They are covered with pale pink scales and have juicy white pulp of moderate density. The taste of onions is sweet, which is rare among cold-resistant and disease-resistant varieties. Spanish 313 will also please with a high yield – 4,6 kg per 1 sq. m beds.
    Spanish 313
  • Bamberger. One of the newest varieties of onions, which is well adapted for growing on turnips and feathers. Bulbs of an elongated shape are small and have a mild taste with spicy notes. The outer scales are yellow, and the juicy pulp is a milky light shade. Bamberger is resistant to bolting, and is also rarely affected by fungal diseases.
  • Stardast F1. Winter snow-white onion, which can be planted before winter in different regions. Bulbs of small size weigh 40-50 g each, have dense flesh with a spicy taste. Productivity – up to 3 kg per 1 square. m. The plant is unpretentious and steadfastly withstands frost. The hybrid belongs to multi-germ and is suitable for forcing green onions.

    Stardast F1

  • farmer late. A variety for mass cultivation that can be grown through direct sowing of seeds into the ground to obtain rounded bulbs weighing up to 250 g. When cultivated through seedlings, it will be possible to obtain specimens weighing 350 g. intense taste. The variety is valued for its versatility, resistance to fungal diseases and good keeping quality.
    farmer late
  • Radar. A winter variety with a good yield that bears fruit in large round bulbs weighing up to 300 g. They have white flesh and yellow-golden dense scales, providing them with good keeping quality and the ability to tolerate temperatures down to -15°C in snowy winters and down to -23°C during heavy snowfalls. The variety does not give arrows, is not afraid of pests and diseases, but greatly depletes the soil, so it cannot be cultivated in the same area for 2 consecutive seasons.
  • Snowball. It belongs to one of the best varieties of white onions. Outwardly, it resembles a snow ball, since bulbs weighing from 145 to 160 g are white and rounded. The pulp is very juicy and semi-sharp, which distinguishes Snowball from its counterparts. Bulbs can be stored for up to 6 months. They are resistant to shooting and many diseases.
  • Red Baron. The variety can be grown in regions with different climatic conditions. It bears fruit with red bulbs with dense and uniform pulp. It is crispy, sweet in taste and without bitterness. Thanks to the contrasting color, this onion fits perfectly into vitamin salads. The plant itself is not subject to decay and disease, but requires abundant watering during dry periods. At the same time, excessive moisture should not be allowed, as it will cause cracking of the bulbs.

    Red Baron

  • Costanza F1. Fruits in rounded bulbs weighing up to 150-170 g, covered with dense scales of red saturated color with a bronze tint. The snow-white pulp is juicy and excellent for mass processing. The variety rarely gets sick and endures sudden changes in temperature. The hybrid can be harvested mechanically, so it is suitable for growing in bulk.
    Costanza F1
  • Exclusive. The original onion of the Dutch selection, which bears large fruits weighing up to 500 g, and sometimes up to 800 g. They have a rounded elongated shape, golden dry scales and sweet white flesh. The yield of the variety is up to 3-4,3 kg per 1 sq. m. Exhibition can be stored up to 4 months.

A selection of flavors

By taste, turnips can also be classified into three groups. We will consider the best representatives of each of them separately.


Onion varieties characterized by a sharp taste mainly include fast-growing crops with a long shelf life, but low yields. Popular among them are the varieties mentioned above:

  • Timiryazevsky;
  • Stuttgart Riesen;
  • Strigunovsky local.

You can add to this list the following varieties:

  • Arzamas local. An early ripe variety that bears fruit with medium-sized root crops weighing up to 70-90 g. They have a round or oblong shape, dry brown-yellow scales and white juicy pulp. The variety belongs to small-nesting and when grown in a two-year culture from 1 square. m beds gives about 3,2 kg of crop. As disadvantages, the susceptibility of the plant to downy mildew and onion fly can be noted.
    Arzamas local
  • Chalcedony. A mid-season variety of Moldovan selection, which bears fruit with root crops of universal purpose. Nests usually produce one oval or round bulb with bronze-brown scales and white, juicy flesh. On average, each of them weighs 90 g. The crop yield under favorable conditions is up to 5 kg per 1 sq. m. The peculiarity of the variety lies in the fact that during the development of the bulbs are located above the soil surface, which accelerates their maturation and facilitates the process of harvesting.


  • Golden Semko. A sharp, small-nested hybrid with an early ripening period, which is mainly grown in the northern regions through sets. It bears fruit with bulbs weighing up to 80 g, which are covered with a yellowish-brown husk and have juicy white flesh. The crop yield is up to 3,5 kg per 1 sq. m. Without loss of presentation, root crops can be stored for 6-7 months. Golden Semko will please with resistance to low temperatures and diseases.
    Golden Semko


More productive varieties, but their cleaning and storage causes more difficulties, since the bulbs are quickly injured and deteriorate. The best representatives of the peninsular varieties include the aforementioned Carmen, as well as the following crops:

  • Brunswick. Fruits in cherry-red bulbs, which have a rounded slightly flattened shape and weigh up to 120 g. The flesh is white, and the onion rings give off a raspberry hue and a semi-sharp spicy taste. Harvest can be harvested 130 days after planting. From 1 sq. m beds will be able to collect about 3,2 kg of root crops. It is recommended to grow a culture through sevoc to protect it from bacteriosis damage.
  • Kaba. Recognized as one of the best late-ripening varieties with a semi-sweet taste, therefore it is often used fresh in salads. The bulbs are formed large (up to 200 g) and covered with golden yellow dry scales with a brown tint. The texture of the flesh is slightly loose, so when harvesting the bulbs, you need to be careful not to damage them. It is better to grow a variety in an annual culture – from seeds through seedlings. Bulbs should be harvested as they ripen and eaten immediately, as they are not suitable for long-term storage.


  • Spirit F1. A hybrid of the Dutch selection, which, unlike the previous varieties, is suitable for winter storage, and also shows resistance to germination and rot (bacterial, cervical). It is best grown in an annual crop from seed. The bulbs are rounded flat, of medium density and with 2-3 primordia. They are covered with dry bronze scales, and the flesh is white and juicy. The yield of an early ripe hybrid wants to leave the best – 0,8-2 kg per 1 sq. m.
    Spirit F1


Most sweet varieties are suitable for fresh consumption, have a high yield and a short shelf life. The best regions for their cultivation are the southern ones. Among the varieties mentioned, Exhibition and Red Baron are sweet. This list can be supplemented by such cultures:

  • Yalta. A popular salad onion that has a very sweet taste without bitterness or pungency. The heads always turn out to be flattened and weigh about 150 g. They are covered with purple scales with a raspberry tint and have thick inner rings with a lilac tint. Onions should be consumed raw, as after heat treatment they lose many useful elements. You can store the bulbs for up to 4-5 months in a cool place, after weaving them into braids.
  • Caramel. The variety bears fruit with elongated salad bulbs, which reach a length of 10 cm and gain up to 60 g. They are covered with dense purple scales and have white sweet flesh with a faint aroma. It is best to grow Caramel through seedlings in May in order to get an early onion harvest in June-July. If it is planned to lay the vegetable for winter storage, then planting work is best done in April-May, and root crops are harvested in August-September.


  • Densimore. Mid-season onion for growing in an annual crop, which will please with good preservation and transportability. It produces aligned round heads with a thin neck, each of which weighs approximately 120-130 g. The bulbs have golden scales with a bronze or greenish tint. The flesh is white and has a sweet and savory taste. Bulbs can be perfectly stored without loss of marketability in well-ventilated areas.

Red varieties

In addition to the Red Baron and Brunswick mentioned, some other crops can be attributed to popular varieties of red onions.

Red Brunswick

A mid-early variety that has a colorful purple color and can be cultivated through seeds or sets. Depending on the method of planting, the crop can be harvested for 70-110 days.

Red Brunswick

The plant bears fruit in rounded flat bulbs, which weigh an average of 100 g each. Their inner scales are white with purple rims. To taste, it is a pleasant and semi-sharp onion.

The crop yield is 2,5-3 kg per 1 sq. m. The plant is highly resistant to fungal diseases and needs a short ripening.

Campillo F1

A hybrid with an average ripening period – when sowing seeds in April, already in August-September, you can get a crop of uniform round bulbs weighing from 110 to 150 g. They have raspberry-red scales and thick dense flesh, which is characterized by a whitish-pink hue.

Campillo F1

Mature bulbs need to be dried in the garden, and then sent to a dry room for ripening for 7-14 days. After such procedures, they are well stored, and also show resistance to rot and fusarium.

Black Prince

In areas with a cold climate, you can safely grow this onion of domestic selection. It bears fruit with burgundy heads of a rounded shape, which in mass gain up to 100 g. The bulbs are covered with dry dark purple scales with a raspberry tint. The flesh is white and juicy, semi-sharp in taste with a high sugar content.

Black Prince

You can harvest the Black Prince for 100-110 days from the moment the first shoots appear. From 1 sq. m beds will be able to get up to 4-5 kg ​​of heads, which are subject to long-term storage and endures transportation over long distances.

Large varieties

Among the varieties of onions, one can separately distinguish those that bear fruit with especially large heads. The aforementioned Exhibition, as well as some other cultures, can be attributed to their popular representatives.


Lettuce variety with late ripening, which is recommended to be cultivated through seedlings, sowing seeds already in early March. If you provide the plant with additional lighting and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, after 120-130 days you can get a crop of heads with the following characteristics:

  • in shape resemble a wide ellipse;
  • on average, they weigh 700-800 g, although huge specimens weighing up to 1 kg come across;
  • have yellowish-orange husks and inner white scales;
  • they taste sweet and very juicy, but lack a sharp onion smell.


Harvest from 1 square. m beds – about 9-12 kg. Bulbs should be eaten immediately, and not stored for long periods, as they tend to germinate.

Russian size

If you grow a crop through seedlings, sowing seeds in February, then already in August-September you can get huge bulbs with a record weight of 3 kg. They have a rounded shape with a slightly elongated neck and are covered with golden yellow scales with a greenish tint. The flesh itself is creamy white and has a delicate spicy pungency. It does not have a strong characteristic odor.

Russian size

Bulbs weighing 3 kg each have a low safety, so they should be used immediately in salads or preparations.

White Wing

A hybrid of onions, which are characterized by powerful roots and leaves. After 90-100 days from the moment of planting, the plant bears fruit in round snow-white bulbs of impressive size – an average of 400 g. The pulp is also white and has increased juiciness.

White Wing

This hybrid can be grown in any climate zone. It does not require special care, endures heat and drought, and is not subject to fungal diseases. Bulbs can be stored for 5 months. They are suitable for both fresh consumption and canning.

To grow onions in your backyard, first of all, you need to decide on its variety. The most popular representatives of this culture could be found above. Thanks to a wide variety of varieties and hybrids, each gardener will be able to choose the right option.

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Anna Evans


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