Infectious stomatitis (wet muzzle, biting biting) in rabbits

A wet muzzle in a rabbit (little biting) is a sign of inflammation of the oral mucosa. It develops due to increased secretion of saliva, which then falls on the fur of the nose, sternum and irritates the delicate skin of the animal. Over time, the pathological process leads to an acute inflammatory process in the upper layers of the skin.

Rabbit's bitch

Causes

The main cause of a wet muzzle in rabbits is infectious stomatitis (in the common people – midges). The anomaly is transmitted through saliva, blood and urine, therefore, when one individual is infected, infection of all offspring is possible. At the same time, the animal can remain a carrier of the disease throughout its life.

Most often, the disease is carried by very young rabbits aged from 1 to 3 months. But biting midges can also disturb adults.

Viral stomatitis occurs in rabbits of any breed. Outbreaks of infection can occur throughout the year, but are most common in spring and summer.

Activation of the causative agent of the virus occurs only with adverse external influences. Among the factors contributing to the development of the disease, there are the following:

  • dirty drinkers, feeders and cages themselves;
  • crowding of animals in a cramped cage;
  • moving young animals to other cells;
  • improper diet;
  • lack of essential vitamins in the diet;

This article will tell you more about useful vitamins for rabbits.

  • stress in rabbits, incl. when changing the usual feed;
  • mating of healthy individuals with infected ones;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • frequent temperature fluctuations, high humidity and drafts;
  • weakened immunity of animals.

The disease can be of bacterial, traumatic and non-viral origin. Also, pathology occurs due to helminthic invasion or due to pathologies of the teeth.

Viral stomatitis spreads quite quickly. Infection occurs during the contact of rabbits, for example, when feeding the offspring of a rabbit. Recovered individuals do not cease to be carriers of the virus, but acquire immunity to the disease. In the absence of timely treatment during an outbreak, the risk of death of the entire livestock increases, therefore, at the first symptoms of stomatitis, you should contact your veterinarian as soon as possible.

Forms of viral stomatitis

The disease is classified into several types, which differ from each other in the degree of severity and the presence of complications. Specialists distinguish the following forms of pathology:

  1. Light. There are practically no symptoms. With timely therapy, biting midges can be cured in 10-14 days. At the same time, almost all livestock survive.
  2. Heavy. Signs of an anomaly cannot be ignored. As a rule, the death of the animal occurs already on the fourth day after infection. The neglected form of the anomaly threatens the complete death of the entire livestock.
  3. Atypical. Symptoms are absent or very mild. No special changes in the behavior of the animal are observed. Recovery occurs 5-6 days after the onset of the disease.

Symptoms

Symptoms of the disease depend on the form of the disease, the age of the animal and the immune forces of its body.

Among common features The development of infectious stomatitis is distinguished by the following:

  • weight loss;
  • copious salivation;
  • wet nose, from which mucus is secreted;
  • constantly wet fur on the muzzle and chest of the animal;
  • hair loss;
  • lack of appetite;
  • bright red shade of the mouth;
  • the presence of inflammation on the tongue and cheeks;
  • white coating on mucous membranes;
  • uncontrolled diarrhea.

In an infected rabbit, the tongue swells, hemorrhages appear in the oral cavity. He constantly rubs his muzzle with his paws, while experiencing pain and discomfort.

Rabbit's bitch

The animal looks sickly, untidy. The wool sticks together and falls out, and multiple wounds appear on the body.

RџSЂRё mild form the disease is almost asymptomatic, the disease can even go away on its own in 2-3 days. Small sores appear on the muzzle of animals, a white coating appears on the tongue, the nose becomes soft and warm. At the same time, appetite and bowel movements remain normal, there is no weight loss, animals do not lose activity and mobility. Saliva becomes visible only in the corners of the mouth, so the disease is often confused with an injury to its mucosa.

Heavy form has a pronounced clinical picture: the rabbit stops eating and drinking, the muzzle is covered with purulent abscesses, and the oral cavity is covered with sores. Salivation increases. There is profuse diarrhea, which leads to complete dehydration of the body.

It is necessary to distinguish between stomatitis and infectious rhinitis in rabbits. A wet nose in a rabbit in the first case appears due to the fact that he rubs his wet muzzle with his paws and smears the flowing saliva. Rhinitis is distinguished by the release of mucus from the nose of the animal.

Even after the disappearance of all symptoms of the disease, the animal may look sick for several weeks, until all of its hair is completely restored. It is not recommended that rabbits that have been ill recently be immediately placed in cages with healthy individuals.

Treating Wet Faces in Rabbits

The treatment of biting biting in rabbits should be chosen and prescribed by a veterinarian. The earlier therapy is started, the greater the chance of a favorable outcome. Before starting treatment, you need to put the sick animal in a separate cage and isolate it from other individuals.

Medication Therapy

For the treatment of stomatitis, the following medications may be needed:

  • antibiotic Biomycin;
  • antimicrobial drug Sulfadimezin;
  • spray for irrigation of the oral cavity Lugol;
  • antibacterial agent Streptocid;
  • douching of the oral cavity and lubrication of sores with a 2% aqueous solution of copper sulphate;
  • potassium permanganate solution for treating affected areas on the animal’s body;
  • Lanolin or penicillin ointments, oral injections.

For the treatment of biting biting, it is necessary to take immunomodulators, mineral and vitamin complexes, and various additives. All of them help to strengthen the body’s defenses and restore a weakened body. An infected rabbit is prescribed both antibacterial and antiviral drugs. To normalize the intestinal microflora, it is worth drinking rabbits with enzymes and probiotics (Lakoferon, Vetom). The dosage of each medication should be determined by a specialist.

Also, in the fight against stomatitis, it is necessary to take Apidermin. It includes honey, propolis, extracts of medicinal plants. The drug not only contributes to the speedy recovery of the animal, but also increases its immunity, and also accelerates wound healing and has an antiseptic effect. The medication can also be used to prevent stomatitis.

The weakened immune system caused by stomatitis can lead to infection with other infections.

The treatment of infectious stomatitis in rabbits is described in this video:

Feeding rabbits during treatment

Due to a pathological lesion of the oral cavity, the rabbit cannot drink and eat normally, as it experiences pain. Such a violation significantly complicates the treatment of the disease and leads to a weakening of the already exhausted organism.

That is why a sick pet should be given only soft food:

  • liquid porridge;
  • curdled milk;
  • boiled root vegetables (for example, beets, carrots, potatoes);
  • bran soaked in warm milk.

The basic rule in nutrition for a successful and speedy recovery of an individual is high-calorie and complete feed. The transition to a normal diet should be smooth in order to avoid the appearance of stress in the animal.

It is also important to maintain a drinking regimen during therapy: the rabbit should drink as much liquid as possible during the day. Only in this way will he soon be able to remove all harmful substances from the body.

Folk remedies

Treatment of stomatitis in rabbits can be not only medication. Often it also includes traditional medicine recipes. So, for the treatment of the disease are suitable herbal decoctions from sage, chamomile, calendula and oak bark. Herbs have an anti-inflammatory effect, so they should soon improve the condition of a sick animal.

A decoction of plants must be prepared following the instructions on the package (the product is sold at any veterinary pharmacy). Then leave to brew and strain. After that, a small piece of bandage or a sterile cotton pad is moistened in it and the affected areas in the mouth are gently treated. You can also irrigate the mucous membranes with a syringe without a needle.

Such a tool will also help to prevent anomalies. It is recommended to treat the oral cavity for preventive purposes at least 1 time per month.

Can be cooked at home propolis ointment. The component is a natural antiseptic, which means it will successfully cope with the spread of infection and inflammation.

To normalize the functioning of the digestive system, it is worth drinking a rabbit infusion of medicinal cinquefoil. To prepare it, you need to grind one tablespoon of dry grass and pour it with a glass of boiling water for 15-20 minutes. After this, the infusion must be filtered and cooled. The medicine is ready for use.

To strengthen the immune system of the animal, you can give medicinal tea from wormwood, burdock root and yarrow, which can be infused with a syringe without a needle.

The rabbit is watered with a syringe

Prevention

To prevent the spread of the disease in rabbits, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of animal cells, disinfect the premises where rabbits are located several times a month.

Be sure to carry out preventive vaccinations several times a year, drink animals with anthelmintic drugs, and add vitamin-mineral complexes to food. It is important to monitor the quality of feed for rabbits.

To prevent pathology in drinking water for animals, you can add 1 teaspoon of iodine per 10 liters of water.

During milk feeding, the symptoms of stomatitis practically do not appear, so it is important to examine the young, even after weaning from the mother until about four months of age.

Individuals who have been ill or bought recently should not be immediately planted in cages with healthy animals. You should keep them in quarantine for at least a week. Previously infected rabbits should be completely removed from the breeding divorce.

Having noticed the first signs of the manifestation of infectious stomatitis in rabbits, it is necessary to invite a veterinarian as soon as possible to examine and prescribe further treatment. In most cases, timely therapy guarantees a favorable prognosis for the diseased animal and the entire livestock as a whole.

Infectious stomatitis (wet muzzle, biting biting) in rabbits
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Anna Evans

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