In order for the grapes to give you a good harvest, they require careful care, which includes processing. Read below about how best to process this plant.
Why is processing needed?
In the summer, starting from the first month – June, the grapes must not only be watered, but also well processed. It is at this time that many harmful insects begin to become more active, and the weather creates favorable conditions for the development of the fungus. During this period, grapes become more vulnerable to diseases, pests and bad weather, and therefore they need good processing and top dressing.
The first processing of grapes should be carried out before flowering, the second – in June, after flowering. During flowering, any spraying of this crop is contraindicated. It is necessary to process the grapes for the third time in the fall, for the fourth time, which is also the last, the processing is carried out before sheltering the plant for the winter. The essence of the procedure is not only to protect the grapes from a variety of insects and viral diseases.
It also contributes to its stable development, enrichment of the composition of the fruit and the preservation of normal yields.
The drug is used by many summer residents on various cultivated plants, including grapes. The big advantage of the substance is low toxicity and ease of use. It, being a means of contact action, is not absorbed into the planting tissues and is easily washed off with water. Speaking specifically about grapes, then iron sulfate is able to fight a large number of fungal diseases, as well as harmful insects.
Also, it works great as a fertilizer. It is necessary to treat the plant with this preparation before the buds swell. It is not difficult to make a solution based on it, but consider the dosage. It depends solely on the purpose for which you use the tool. So, for example, a solution with a concentration of 3% is suitable for combating lichen on grapes, and for prevention it is better to use a solution with a concentration of no more than 1%.
This drug is in many ways similar in composition and action to the aforementioned iron sulfate. In general, these two remedies for the vineyard are interchangeable. However, we note that copper sulfate is more harmful due to its high toxicity, and therefore it is not recommended to use it in large quantities.
It is a fungicide, which, due to the presence of copper sulfate in the composition, is devoid of the harmful burning effect. A solution based on it is able to provide grapes with protection from:
- late blight;
- brown spotting;
- goblet rust and other diseases.
However, please note that the diluted mixture cannot be stored, and therefore it must be used immediately. How concentrated the solution needs to be prepared depends solely on the situation and the processing time. So, during the period of early spring, you can use a stronger mixture, at a later time – with a concentration of no more than 1%.
Urea, or carbamide, contains a large amount of nitrogen. It is an effective fertilizer and, moreover, completely safe to use. It can be used for both root and foliar feeding of grapes. Urea allows not only to fertilize the plant, but also to fight many harmful insects, as well as pathogens of various diseases. This drug helps to increase the resistance of the vineyard to various fungi, as well as to the attacks of caterpillars and copperheads. Most often, urea is combined with copper sulphate, since these two agents are in perfect harmony with each other. A solution of them is prepared as follows:
- 0,7 kilograms of urea is poured into a plastic container and poured with 8 liters of water, after which it is stirred to make the liquid transparent;
- 50-100 grams of copper sulfate, in turn, is diluted with 800 milliliters of heated water;
- after that, the second mixture is slowly poured into the solution with urea and another 10 liters of water are added.
It is rather a biological drug that has low toxicity, which is why it is in high demand among summer residents. It is less effective than chemicals, but it can be used in any phase of grape development, with the exception of flowering. To prepare a solution based on Fitosporin, 5 grams of this product dissolved in a bucket of water will be enough.
It is necessary to apply such a solution 3 times – before bud break, just before flowering and after it. This tool is able to protect the vineyard from bacterial diseases and fungus. When processing this drug, keep in mind that it does not have high resistance, and therefore it is desirable to process it in cloudless weather.
If it rains, then the treatment will have to be repeated.
Solutions made according to folk recipes are also perfect for processing and feeding the vineyard. Many of them are very effective in the fight against various diseases and parasites, but in critical situations they are powerless. A big plus of such solutions is their availability. It is possible to make them yourself, at home, while the costs in terms of time and money will be minimal.
- Onion husks. To prevent fungal diseases of grapes, it is necessary to spray the plant with this particular solution. Make it easy. You will need half a bucket of the main component and water, all this must be boiled for about 20 minutes and left for tincture for another day. Optionally, 1-2 tablespoons of honey can be added to the mixture. Next, the plants are treated with a solution, this must be done during the opening of the kidneys, before flowering and after. Similarly, you can prepare a solution based on celandine or comfrey.
- Soda. A soda-based solution will be a good preventive measure, as it can protect your plant from fungal diseases, including oidium. In order to prepare the product, it is necessary to dissolve 7 grams of laundry soap and 20 large spoons of the component in 2 liters of water. Before flowering, the plant must be sprayed once, after flowering – three more times with a frequency of 7-10 days.
- Iodine. Another useful component that can protect the plant from diseases, increase their productivity and enrich the composition of the fruit. However, its excess can harm the plant, it must be used with strict adherence to the dosage. For prevention, a solution will be enough, where a drop of iodine falls on a liter of water.
Rules of conducting
For prevention, the plant is treated 4 times for the entire season:
- at the time of shoot growth;
- during budding;
- after flowering;
- during cluster formation.
Note that if the weather deteriorated and it started to rain, then the treatment must be carried out no later than after 2 hours. If there is no possibility, then it is best to resort to cyclic processing. In addition, it is recommended to monitor the weather conditions. During treatment with chemicals or solutions made according to folk recipes, the foliage should be dry, and the weather should be calm and not hot.
Most often, the ideal time for processing is the evening, namely the period when the sun has already set.
For information on how to treat grapes from diseases and pests in June, see the following video.