To get a good, rich grape harvest on your own plot, it is not enough just to plant and care for one plant. You need to propagate an existing variety using cuttings yourself. Of course, you can always buy grown seedlings in the nursery, but it’s expensive, and you can’t guess with the variety. And preparing and germinating cuttings on your own is much easier.
How to prepare and store cuttings?
Propagation of grapes by cuttings is the most common method among gardeners. Cuttings are based on the rare ability of wild grapes to fully recover from a single shoot. For novice gardeners, propagating grapes from cuttings will seem like a complicated method, but with the right approach, the process is quite simple. If you try hard and study the advice of experienced gardeners, you can get a good result the first time. And after 2-3 years, harvest a rich harvest from young bushes. The main condition is the correct preparation and storage of chibouks. You can cut grapes in spring and autumn, but autumn is preferable. With proper storage in winter, cuttings (chubuki) will be ready for planting by spring, and over the summer they will gain strength and endure the first winter well.
Autumn cuttings are more suitable for the middle lane, where in winter the temperature drops below -20, and the grapes need to be covered for the winter. In the south, you can also plant grapes in the spring, using young cut green shoots.
The timing of the preparation of cuttings varies depending on climatic conditions – the main thing is to be in time before frost. It is better to start after the leaves fall, when the vine has matured and gained nutrients for the whole winter. In the middle lane, you can start cutting grapes in August-September, and in the south even later. Cuttings harvested in the fall and properly prepared for planting in the ground can produce a crop the next year.
In spring and summer (June-July), cuttings can be cut from the vine of a well-bearing bush and planted in the ground at an acute angle. This must be done before the start of the flowering period. Green cuttings about 30 cm long are placed in water for several hours. Before planting, the lower leaves are removed and planted in the ground in a permanent place. The landing site should be watered daily. And for the winter, be sure to cover well. With this method of cuttings, the first harvest will be for 4-5 years.
Green cuttings cut in the summer can be prepared for storage for the winter and planted in the spring, then these will be ready-made seedlings, and they will begin to bear fruit faster.
At home, preparing cuttings for storage and spring planting in the ground is very simple. To do this, when pruning grapes in the fall, choose cuttings from good bushes that have a rich harvest. The right choice of cuttings is the key to the success of reproduction and abundant fruiting.
Chubuki are cut from a vine, the diameter of which does not exceed 6 mm. It is believed that thicker cuttings will not take root.
For cuttings, only a mature vine is used; the chubuk should crack when bent. The bark should be evenly colored, from light to dark brown, without spots.
The vine should be healthy, green when cut. Chubuki should turn out without damage and signs of various diseases and fungal infections. It is recommended to take the vine from fruit-bearing branches, so rooting results will be higher. Cut the cuttings from the middle section of the branch.
Cut the cuttings at least 70 cm long, with 3-8 living eyes on each. Some gardeners prefer to cut cuttings a little over a meter long; after storage, they will have to cut off the rotten parts. Make the cut obliquely, removing the remains of foliage, unformed shoots and stepchildren. Choose more even parts of the vine for chibouks, it is more convenient to store and root them.
If you are not going to root the chibouks right away, then the prepared cuttings should be tied with a soft rope, collecting them in a bundle of 10-12 pieces and left for storage. It is necessary to store chibouks in a cool place (temperature not higher than +5). Most often, blanks are stored in a cellar or basement. A bunch of cuttings is placed in a container with moistened earth or sand and left for storage. In the southern regions, pipes are sometimes stored right on the site. They dig a trench or just a hole, about half a meter deep. The bottom is sprinkled with sand, the workpieces are carefully laid and sprinkled with earth. From above, they are additionally insulated with sawdust or leaves, necessarily covered with a film. You can also store cuttings in the refrigerator door. Chubuki are pre-soaked in water for about a day, then tightly wrapped in polyethylene and left for storage. So it is convenient to store chibouks with a small amount of them.
Some gardeners recommend disinfecting cuttings before storage. This can be done by holding the blanks in a solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate. Only after that you can collect them in bunches and send them to storage.
When storing cuttings in a cellar or refrigerator, be sure to check their condition. Humidity and temperature need to be controlled. The buds can freeze or dry out, then rooting the cuttings will not work. And if it is too warm, the buds will begin to bloom, it is impossible to plant such cuttings in the spring, they will not take root and die.
When choosing a place to store blanks, consider the storage conditions, and the fact that in January-February they will need to be pulled out and seedlings will begin to grow.
Root cuttings begin in late January – early February, depending on climatic conditions. The process should be started about 2 months before planting, when the soil warms up to +10. Before rooting, the cuttings need to be awakened and checked. The cuttings are left for some time at room temperature. Then each chubuk is cut from both ends at a distance of 2-3 cm. If the cut is green and drops of juice appear on it, then the cutting is alive and suitable for rooting. When the cut is brown and there are no signs of juicing, the cutting is dead and unusable. If the length of the cutting allows, you can cut another 5-7 cm. Perhaps in the middle the escape is still alive. There are times when the cuttings begin to rot, then even without an incision, drops of water are visible on the cuts. Such cuttings are not suitable for rooting.
To germinate chubuki at home on your own, you must first soak the live blanks in warm water for 2 days, periodically changing the water. Sometimes honey or sugar is added to the water. If there are signs of mold on the chibouks, then potassium permanganate can be added to the water. The cuttings must be completely immersed in water, if this is not possible, then at least 2/3. After that, the cuttings can be placed in a solution with rooting stimulants (“Kornevin”). At the same time, 2-3 small vertical cuts should be made on the vine. There should be 2-3 live eyes on the harvested cuttings, the upper cut is made even at a distance of 4-5 cm from the upper kidney. The lower cut, if desired, can be made oblique or bilateral, which will increase the area of uXNUMXbuXNUMXbroot formation. The lower cut is made immediately under the kidney, at a distance of no more than 1 cm.
You can root grape cuttings in several ways: in filler, water, and even foam. The rooting and germination process takes a long time (about 6 days), you should not wait for the roots and greenery to appear quickly. The main danger of rooting at home is the awakening of the kidneys and the appearance of leaves before the formation of the root system. To avoid this, experienced gardeners advise heating the seedlings from below, and keeping the buds cool.
This is very easy to achieve, the seedlings need to be kept on the window, where the heat from the heating system will warm the soil. The window can be periodically opened, then the kidneys will not germinate prematurely.
It is believed that this is the easiest way to root. To do this, it is better to use glass containers, so it will be more convenient to follow the process of formation of the root system. The water should be warm, about 22-24 degrees. Chubuki are immersed in water and periodically washed from the resulting mucus due to juice secretion. If the room is warm, then you can slightly open the window so that the upper buds of the chibouks are cool.
Keep an eye on the water level, topping up if necessary. After a few weeks, the root system will form. When the length of the roots reaches 5-6 cm, the seedlings can be transplanted into the ground. If weather conditions allow, then you can land immediately on a permanent place. When transplanting cuttings, be careful with young roots, do not break or damage them.
Sawdust is most often used for rooting grape cuttings. And you can also use peat, sand, enriched soil, sometimes even an ordinary damp cloth. The main condition for any filler is to maintain the necessary moisture and heat for the formation of roots. Prepared cuttings are lowered into a moistened substrate to a depth of 5-7 cm, and left for several weeks in a warm and bright place. Do not forget to moisten the filler, preventing the cuttings from drying out. After the roots appear, the shank can be transplanted into containers with soil. When planting, it is not necessary to remove the remains of the filler (of course, if it is not polyethylene or fabric).
This method has a significant drawback. Formed leaves and shoots will take a lot of moisture from the filler, and there is a real risk of cuttings drying out. You need to constantly monitor this. Some gardeners advise putting seedlings in the shade, but poor formation of young shoots is possible. You can cover the cuttings with polyethylene, creating a greenhouse effect and a high percentage of humidity.
On the wardrobe
For this method, you will need natural fabric, water and polyethylene. First you need to prepare the cuttings, as for the previous methods. Then moisten the cloth and wrap each cutting. Wrap only the lower part of the chubuk, where the roots will form. Next, we wrap the cuttings with polyethylene over a damp cloth. The top of the cuttings remains open.
We put all the cuttings prepared in this way on a cabinet or any other high furniture. We place the blanks in such a way that sunlight falls on the open part, and the tips in the fabric remain in the shade. After 2-3 weeks, the roots should appear, and the chibouks are ready for planting in the ground.
This is one of the most unusual ways to germinate chibouks. For it, you will need foam plastic squares about 3×3 cm in size and a water container. A hole is cut in the center for the cuttings. The cuttings should not fall out of the foam blanks.
We collect water in a container and immerse the foam plastic with cuttings into it. We leave the container in a warm and bright place. The water needs to be changed periodically. If desired, add a little honey or sugar. In about a month, roots will appear, the shank can be transplanted into the ground.
After germination, when the root system has formed, the roots reach 1-2 cm in length, and the first shoots and several leaves appeared from the buds, it is time to transplant the seedlings into a seedling box (the so-called “school” for seedlings). Instead of a box, you can use any suitable container: disposable cups, cut plastic bottles, as long as they are large enough for the root system to grow freely. Each cutting should have at least 10 cm of space in diameter, about 25 cm deep.
At the bottom of the container for seedlings, it is imperative to pour drainage. Then fill with a mixture of fertile soil and sand. The soil should be loose. Cuttings are planted 7-10 cm deep. The main condition for growing seedlings is the formation of a strong root system. To do this, do not allow waterlogging of the soil, watering can be compensated by spraying the leaves. The first watering after planting should be plentiful, and subsequently infrequent, so that the young roots do not begin to rot.
Chibouks from above can be covered with cut plastic bottles or polyethylene, airing from time to time. Seedlings are placed in a warm, bright place, with mandatory sunlight.
The process of growing and rooting will take 2-3 weeks. The roots during this time should grow up to 10 cm. At this time, you can feed the seedlings once with a potash solution. When the open ground warms up to 10-15 degrees Celsius, they are planted in a permanent place.
How to plant?
Around May – early June, when the soil has warmed up and the night frosts have ended, the finished seedlings are planted in open ground. Before this, it is better to harden the seedlings in the fresh air for several days, and pinch the top. Young shoots with several leaves and a developed root system should already appear on the chibouks.
Seedlings are planted in open ground at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other. Seedlings should be planted in such a way that the upper bud is at a height of 7-10 cm from the ground. It is not necessary to free the root system from the earthen clod in order to avoid damage to the root system. The cuttings are covered with fertile soil and compacted. After planting, the grapes require abundant watering.
The first two weeks, seedlings require more careful care. It is necessary to create a shade without direct sunlight. If spring frosts are coming, young seedlings must be covered with polyethylene.
When 10-12 leaves appear on the seedling, the top must be pinched to form a strong root system and ripen the vine. When growing young shoots, they need to be tied to a vertical support. Stepchildren, except for the lower ones, are removed.
Growing grapes from cuttings may seem like a time-consuming and costly process, but it’s worth it. During the first summer, seedlings grow up to 1,5-2 m and gain strength for the first winter in the open field. Grapes are a fast-growing crop and develop even from a single shoot. And the harvest will be already for 2-3 years.